Monday, May 25, 2020

The Strategic Management Process - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 1961 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? Strategic management is a continuous process of formulating, implementing and controlling broad plans that facilitate an organization in achieving the set objectives. It can also refer as the art and science of formulating, implementing and evaluating cross-functional decisions that enable an organization to achieve its objective. (Bratton, n.d). Strategic management is an ongoing activity and requires an invariable modification among the three traditional poles of a strategic plan including: values of senior management, environment and the resources available. It can also be defined as the set of decisions and actions that determines the long-term performance of an organization. The strategic management process has five steps; mission and goals, environmental analysis, strategic formulation, strategy implementation and strategy evaluation. The strategic management model starts with top management evaluation of organizations current position with respect to its set current mission and goals. The Mission reveal what an organization wants to be and whom it wants to serve and how? Mission Statements are essential for effectively establishing objectives and formulating strategies. Goals are the desired ends sought through the actual operating procedures of the organization and typically describe short-term measurable outcome. Strategic management second step is the environmental analysis which consists of two parts internal assessment and external assessment. Strategic formulation is the third step in the strategic management model which involves making strategic choices and making strategies at three different levels corporate, business and functional. Strategy Implementation the fourth step which means involving employees and managers in order to execute the formulated strategies. It is referred as the most difficult stage of strategic management process. It requires personal discipline and commitment. The final stage in strategic managemen t process is strategy evaluation in which management analyzes the consequences of implemented strategies and controls it by adopting corrective measures. (Bratton, n.d) In diversified business organization, strategic management is applied on different levels of hierarchy based on their strategic needs. The hierarchy of strategy can be classified into three levels as: corporate, business and functional. Corporate-level strategy explains what business we are in? It provides the overall strategic direction in diverse areas of an organization that facilitates in smooth running of its different business units. Business-level strategy focuses on effectiveness and efficiency of a business unit. The basic purpose of this strategy is to take decisions that would make a business unit more competitive in the market place and therefore, it is primarily concern with the process of how do we compete?(Bratton, n.d). Porter (1985) (as cited in Bratton, n.d) had introduced a framework for busines s strategy which is based on three competitive strategies; cost leadership, differentiation and focus. These strategies are worldwide known as Michael Porters Generic strategies. Cost leadership strategy emphasize on producing standardized products at a very low per-unit cost for consumers who are price sensitive. Two alternative cost leadership strategies are classified as Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 can be defined as a low cost strategy that offers products or services to a wide range of customers at a lowest price available in the market. Type 2 can be described as a best value strategy that offers of products and services to a wide range of customer at the best price value on the market. It aims to offer customers a range of products and services at the lowest price available compared to rivals products with similar attributes. Differentiation is a strategy focused at producing products and services considered unique industry wide and intended for consumers who are relatively pric e insensitive. Focus strategy emphasize on producing products and services that fulfill the needs of a small group of consumers. The two alternative of Focus strategies are categorized as Type3 and Type 4. Type 4 is a low cost focus strategy that offers products or services to a small range (niche group) of customers at the lowest price available on the market. Type 5 is a best value focus strategy that offers products or services to a small range of customers at the best price value available on the market. (David, n.d). Miles and Snow (1984) (as cited in Bratton, n.d), identified four levels of business strategies that are called four modes of strategic orientation: defenders, prospectors, analysers and reactors. Defenders are companies with limited product line and management focus on improving the efficiency of their existing operations. Prospectors are companies having broad product lines that focus on product innovation, creativity and market opportunities. Analysers are compa nies that operate in at least two different product areas, one stable and one variable. Reactors are companies that lack a consistent strategy structure culture. Rather than defining a strategy that suit to specific environment, they respond to environmental threats and opportunities in ad hoc fashion. Functional level strategy emphasizes on continue improvement of functions within a business units including: research development, marketing, manufacturing, finance and HR. It has been highlighted with strong emphasize in the several strategic management literature that the synergy among different levels should be present. Therefore, when the strategies at different levels are fully integrated, organization would effectively able to achieve its sets targets. The term strategic human resource management is coined as a result of significant contribution made by management gurus in the field of HRM. Strategic human resource management has some presence in manpower planning literature . Ouchi (1981) and Peter Waterman (1982) (as cited in Bratton n.d) have identified one of the important sources of competitive advantage that an organization can achieve by managing its people effectively. This new direction in search of competitive advantage has open new dimensions for scholars and finally the research work emphasized heavily on the significance of strategic role of human resource management. Since then the prefix strategic has been attached to human resource management (Michael E. Poter, 1996) Competitive strategy is about being different it means consciously choosing a different set of activities to deliver a unique mix of value. Competitive advantage occurs when firm have resource heterogeneity and resources immobility. Firm resource heterogeneity this concept suggests that firms all have the different amount and kind of physical, human and organizational resources and they vary across firms. Firms resource immobility refers that competing firms are enable o btain resources from others. (Jay Barney, 1991) Sustainable Competitive advantage is a value creating strategy not simultaneously being implemented by any current or potential competitors as well as competitors are unable to duplicate the benefits of these strategies. According to Porter, 1985 (as cited in Ulrich, n.d) competitive advantage can be defined as firms ability to generate unique products or services which are valued by users of those products. In search of its sources, executives have come across three traditional means of gaining competitive advantage (economic, strategic technology capabilities). (Jay Barney 1991) Four attributes that gives potential to firm recourses to achieve sustained competitive advantage are: valuable, rareness, imitability and substitutability. Strategies are valuable when they facilitate an organization to envision of or implement strategies that improve efficiencies and effectiveness and recourses are rare when a value creating strategy no t simultaneously implements by large number of other firms, the resources must be imperfectly imitable and it is possible when any firm has one or a combination of three reasons (a) unique historical condition (b) causal ambiguity (c) social complexity, the resources cannot be substituted with another resources by competing firms. (Pankaj Ghemawat, 1986) Sustainable competitive advantage has three categories: size in target market, superior access to resources and restrictions on competitors options. Organizational survival in highly turbulent environment has become the major concern of organizations today. Since last decades, due to the extreme globalization and increased technological influences the business environment has gone through major changes and become the focus of attention. Such changes have emphasized executives to focus on means that help to create and achieve competitive advantage. (Ulrich, n.d). In order to remain competitive and perform effectively in rapidly ch anging environment, decision-makers need to seek out factors that provide organizations sustainable competitive advantage. (Hussain, n.d). According to Porter, 1985 (as cited in Ulrich, n.d) competitive advantage can be defined as firms ability to generate unique products or services which are valued by users of those products. In search of its sources, executives have come across three traditional means of gaining competitive advantage (economic, strategic technology capabilities) (Ulrich Lake 1991; Ulrich 1997). Reviews on traditional means of gaining competitive advantage highlighted that these traditional means may be necessary but not sufficient. Executives have realized that additional sustained competitive advantage lies in recognizing and creating organizational capabilities through better deployment of human resources. (Schuler MacMilan, 1984; Ulrich 1986; Ulrich, n.d). Organizational capability can be defined as firms ability to manage people to gain competitiv e advantage. (Ulrich and Lake, 1991). It focuses on employee commitment and competence. (Ulrich and Lake, 1991). Organizations human resources is prove to be the key differentiating factor in developing future competiveness when traditional sources of competitive advantage are easily imitated. (Hussain, n.d). It is something that is difficult to imitate and hence it creates uniqueness. (Ulrich and Lake, 1991). There are several models to measure organizational capability that include (cited in organizational capability- what does it mean, n.d): Hase and colleagues (2000), Dill and Delahaye (2003).But one the widely used model is EFQM. The model is based on nine criteria: five enablers (leadership, people, policy strategy, resources and processes) and four results (people result, customer result and society result). When organizational capability has become the source of competitive advantage and HR professionals are the driving force behind it, than there is a need to develop new a genda for both HR practices and HR professionals. (Ulrich, 1997). Ulrich emphasized that HR professional who contribute to CA must become strategic business partner and acquired new set of personal and professional competencies. (Ulrich, n.d). The concept of strategic business partnering was introduced by Dave Ulrich in his famous book Human Resource Champions in the mid 1990s. (CIPD, n.d). Human resource business partner is a new emerging role in organizations today. In this capacity HR professionals are the human resource specialists, involved in strategic planning of organization to improve business performance and develop organizational culture. (Dash et al, n.d) Lawler and Boardreu shared their views on HR as strategic business partner and highlighted that in this new role HR is a member of senior management team and is directly involved in the major business decisions of the organization, including the formation of strategy, the design of the organization and the implementa tion of the business model.( Lawler and Boardreu, n.d). It has been observed that, during the past decades HR was solely viewed as administrative support function, involved in processing employee paper work, benefits, maintaining personal files. (Dash et al, n.d). Ulrich (as cited in Lawler and Morhman, 2003) has also highlighted the fact that HR function has been viewed an administrative function led by individuals who was primarily responsible to control cost and look after the administrative affairs. As highlighted by Ulrich, HR is the key to success.( Ulrich, 1997). Several studies have highlighted that HR function has the essence to become a strategic partner and by doing so it would then be a more value-added function. Research by Becker and Huselid (1998) (as cited in Lawler and Morhman, 2003) also identified a relation between HR practices and the performance of an organization. Other studies also highlighted the need and emphasized the fact that due to the increased c ompetition for HR talent, HR must mould itself in strategic business partner role. (Lawler and Morhman, 2003). Ulrich discussed that HR needs to become a strategic business partner. (as cited in Lawler and Morhman, 2003) He has emphasized that the HR function should become strategically proactive, that it needs to go beyond administrative expertise and try to be an expert in three important roles that are strategic business partnership, change management, and employee advocacy. (Ulrich, 1997). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Strategic Management Process" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Health Assessment, Module Two- Self Actualization

Introduction Health Assessment is a major part of care in the nursing profession. This topic was study in block one during which ten concepts were identified and further analyzed. First, I begin by giving a brief overview of what the concept entails as it pertains to health assessment. Secondly, current research available for each concept is presented. Then application of concepts to the current job (nursing) is given with particular examples of how these concepts can be useful where appropriate. Lastly application of each concept to current world is presented. Throughout the projects various research text are cited when necessary to bring out relevant points. Identification and Analysis of Concepts Though the intent of the project was to identify concepts evenly throughout the modules, majority of the concepts were introduced in the first 4 modules and therefore concepts from these modules form the bulk for this contextual projects. The following concepts from Block -1 will be examined. Module one – Health history and Health promotion, Module two- Self Actualization, Module three – Therapeutic Relationship, Client centered care, Critical thinking, Patient Advocacy and Delegating and Module 4 – Wellness and Module 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10- Pain. 1. Health History The health history is a collection of organized information unique to an individual. A good health history contains data from many sources including biographical, mental, emotional, demographic, physical, spiritualShow MoreRelatedMentorship Nursing3394 Words   |  14 Pagesbeyond description and reflect on that experience. The aim of this piece is to reflect on my role as a mentor and demonstrate my awareness of the responsibilities involved, whilst paying particular attention to the required learning outcomes 2-5 of the module. 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User - the researcher himself. Identity at this point becomes one of the central concepts in social and behavioral sciences. Consumer awareness of who he is, what values confesses, leads to self-expression through the products and services it buys, uses or gives to others. Consumer - a rebel. In this role, the consumer uses the products to express their negative attitude to the values of a consumer society. In most of this type is inherentRead MoreHrm Policies10725 Words   |  43 Pagesorganization operate in a unified manner. Other responsibilities in this area include safety and health and worker-management relations. Human resource maintenance activities related to safety and health usually entail compliance with federal laws that protect employees from hazards in the workplace. These regulations are handed down from several federal agencies, including the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and various state agenciesRead MorePagan Medical Centre4553 Words   |  19 PagesWESTMINSTER INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE Assignment: Managing Human Capital (Requirement for the module : 201405-MBAE1-MHC-Managing Human Capital) By : Vicknesh Krishnan The Pagan Medical Centre has seen marked progress in growth and success for the past 8 years of its establishment and it doesn’t show any signs of slowing down. Started off as a small partnership between 3 doctors with just 5 nurses being hired, this centre has eventually grown to house 200Read More Preparation for Mentorship and Assessing Essays7780 Words   |  32 PagesHigher Education Institutes (Rapson, Holding and Shepherd, 2003). In recent years, the impetus for review can be attributable to a variety of sources including recommendations made by the government in Making a Difference (Department of Health (DoH), 1999) and the emphasis on Fitness for Practice by the United Kingdom Central Council (1999). More recently, the Placements in Focus document stressed that the environment should provide an area in which students can experience

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Gershwin Porgy and Bess Essay Example For Students

Gershwin: Porgy and Bess Essay American culture has in its short history amassed a modest crop of canonical chestnuts. These enduring achievements may dull the senses or tax the spirit, but nevertheless attention must be paid, usually in a classroom. Death of a Salesman is of course one such necessary acculturator, as are other learning tools for teens like The Bell Jar, The Red Badge of Courage, Appalachian Spring and American Gothic. Mark Twain fortunately killed off Cooper and his Leatherstocking Tales for all time in his delightful essay James Fenimore Coopers Literary Offenses, but I think that The Scarlet Letter and Walden still get assigned to prove that Americans were thinking and writing and reading as far back as 1850, and that Uncle Toms Cabin remains in print because the country is still reeling from the slavery question. I consider myself fortunate to have given Leaves of Grass a second try last summer after disdainfully speed-reading it in college, and I hope to be similarly staggered someday by the inescapable Moby Dick, which I hated at 19. Yet I fear, after numerous attempts, that Ill never appreciate Porgy and Bess. I respect it, I suppose I am glad its there, but the truth is it doesnt move me either as a work of musical theatre or as Americana. On the plus side, its ambitious but not, thank God, pretentious; its musical textures and orchestrations are thrilling throughout. But I much prefer listening to Diahann Carroll sing Summertime or Barbra Streisand sing I Loves You, Porgy out of context than I do hearing the entire score or sitting through a performance, whether it be at Radio City Music Hall or at the Met. Despite its status as an American classic, Porgy and Bess has not gone without detractors since its premiere in 1935. Genre critics have at last given up attempts at classification, letting Gershwins own ruling, a folk opera, stand, but some music critics still find it crudely written, inauthentic and just plain long. Theatre people dont always like the recitatives and would like to hear more consonants from the singers. Over the years, in varying degrees of intensity, critics and performers alike have found the piece racist, offensively stereotypical and demeaning to African Americans. The dicey fact of the matter is that Gershwin and his co-librettists, brother Ira and DuBose Heyward, were white and who were they to dramatize and perhaps pass judgment on the doings in Charlestons Catfish Row, a southern locale now as mythically redolent as Belle Reve or Yoknapatawpha? FOR STARTERS, AND ONE COULD go on, consider the pieces four principal roles: Porgy is a cripple and a beggar. Bess and her red dress are an unreconstructed advertisement for the sins of the flesh, and although she does reform with Porgy, she is booby-trapped by her appetites and a libretto that announces from the start that a woman is a sometime thing. The hulking stevedore Crown, clearly drawn as a menace II society, kills Robbins with a baling hook in a crap game and sexually brutalizes Bess. Sportin Life is a gambler, a drug dealer, a blasphemer and, one may infer from the conclusion, will pimp Bess once they reach New York. While its facile to take potshots at operatic characters writ large, Porgy and Bess has from its inception been praised for its realistic depiction of black life. Does all of that brilliant music offset the libretto? European audiences can rhapsodize about local color and folk naivete, but that is their luxury. Americans cannot squint the problems away, and th ey cannot shut their ears to the white approximation of black American English that the characters are singing. .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec , .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec .postImageUrl , .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec , .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec:hover , .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec:visited , .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec:active { border:0!important; } .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec:active , .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u43fde6b8cdc96e234ef980c59fc158ec:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Does Richard the third deserve his reputation? EssaySo what is one to do with Porgy and Bess? On it rolls, launching great careers and breaking house records all over the world. The Breen-Davis tour of Porgy and Bess in the 50s, which counted Leontyne Price, William Warfield and Maya Angelou among its roster of performers, was practically an arm of the state department, the first American cultural offering to penetrate the Iron Curtain and play Leningrad and Moscow (with stops in Poland and Yugoslavia). It was the first American opera to play La Scala in 1954, and in 1986, assumed similar status at the hallowed Glyndebourne Festival in England. (Can Bayreuth be far off?) Directed by Trevor Nunn and conducted by Simon Rattle with the London Philharmonic, the Glyndebourne production threw off a full-length recording, was restaged at the Royal Opera House in 1992 and has just been filmed for public television by Nunn for American Playhouse and Great Performances, a joint venture that aptly bridges, as does the work itself, the worlds of theatre and classical music. DIFFERENT PRODUCTIONS over the years have been lauded or criticized for being too grand or too modest, too opera or too Broadway. No stranger to musical spectacle when thats what the occasion warrants, Nunn retains all of the score except The Buzzard Song and the top of Act 3, scene iii, and sort of goes on studio location in John Gunters Catfish Row, shifting scenes indoors and cutting to the ocean when the fishermen sail out. Unfortunately, there is no shot that firmly establishes Catfish Row the way the shows monolithic sets usually do, so the viewer is spatially dislocated about how the community is set up and where people are headed. In the enormous crowd scenes, theres enough stage business for three Renaissance fairs or eight productions of Oliver! and therein lies a frustrating contradiction in filmed opera. A film ideally allows viewers to see what they cannot see from a loge seat; zooming in on intimate details, however, negates the essential prerogative of opera to be gra nd, and Porgy and Bess is not an intimate opera. The drama rests in the music, not in our ability to see the box-cars that the doomed Robbins throws in the crap game. What Im trying to say is that opera thrives in the long-shot, with cuts to full-body on the arias staying in close subordinates the music. Theres also the problem of opera singing on film. The actors appear to be lip-synching to their pre-recorded voices, and some are better at it than others. Cynthia Haymons Bess is truly disorienting; while her incredible voice is blowing the roof off of Porgys hut on the soundtrack, her masklike face remains impassive, unexpressive. Theres no wrinkle on her brow, no how, and the film consequently lacks a dramatic center. The only character to benefit from Nunns predeliction for closeups is Sportin Life. Nunn is careful to let us watch Sportin Life watch the action. He has never seemed so less a minstrel clown and more a sick, evil destroyer who clearly outpaces Crown in menace. In his interpretation, Nunn has taken Porgys cart and goat away from him and given him crutches, explaining that he wanted to deemphasize Porgys infirmities and make him more of a believable alternative for Bess. This makes some sense when you consider the seductiveness of Gregg Bakers Crown (for once the actor isnt built like a polar bear, and the What you want wid Bess? scene is a highlight of the film). On the other hand, why rob Bess of her ability to fall in love with a cripple? I DIDNT MISS PORGYS GOAT until the ending. Usually, when Porgy heads off after Bess in the conclusion, it does feel like the saddest story ever told. Nunns choice to have Porgy throw off his crutches and attempt a step as a whole man through the portals of Catfish Row replaces pathos with unearned, yes-I-can positivism. On his cart (with or without the goat) you knew Porgy would never get there, and Bess feels like the Holy Grail, worth wanting, making Porgy the noblest, the most tragic of questing fools. If Porgy seems strong enough or whole enough to reach New York and find her, then you also fear he should be smart enough to realize Bess is not worth the trip. And if hes not smart enough to figure that out, then hes tragically dumb. .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d , .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d .postImageUrl , .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d , .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d:hover , .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d:visited , .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d:active { border:0!important; } .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d:active , .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uc0f66aedfa10ff0d28acc42dd9b7b36d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Framing the fantasy: Amsterdam's Dogtroep brings street theater to new heights EssayAs I mentioned, its easier for me to admire Porgy and Bess as a songbook: great dramatic songs lifted from their problematic context for great voices in recital. Maybe my racial squeamishness is knee-jerk liberalism masking something else; maybe Id be less troubled overall if George Gershwin had lived long enough to fall in love with Their Eyes Were Watching God and collaborated with Zora Neale Hurston on that opera. I might be less troubled if Porgy, Bess, Crown and Sportin Life were enacting their tragic melodrama as disadvantaged whites, or were in Seville singing in French. I might rela x a bit if Anthony Daviss X had received the critical attention and commercial bookings that Nixon in China and The Ghosts of Versailles have in recent seasons. If only George Gershwin could have hung on to write more operas and field questions about his first one. GIVEN OUR LONG HISTORY of feeling culturally inferior to Europe, small wonder that the first accomplished American opera to come along the pike would be culturally overdetermined by necessity, and that we as a Second World nation would stake ourselves to its status as such. I just wish that the first, last and foremost American opera were not Porgy and Bess. When all is said and done when my critical stance is stripped away and my politically correct hackles are lowered and I come before the opera as might a child or a foreigner I think Porgy and Bess is boring. We all know its racist thats easy but I also think its boring. Its too long, duly moving but, oh, so slow, the recitatives seem beside the point, there are too many choral numbers, and even when it sounds great and how can it not? I never get all the words.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

American Revolution Essays (1336 words) - British East India Company

American Revolution Among the many complex factors that contributed to instigating the American Revolution, two stand out most clearly: England's imposition of taxation on the colonies and the failure of the British to gain consent of those being governed, along with the military measures England took on the colonists. Adding to these aforementioned factors were the religious and political legacy of the colonies, and the restriction of civil liberties by the British. Parliamentary taxation was undoubtedly one of the greatest factors inspiring the American public to rebel in the years leading up to the American Revolution. One of the most striking examples of this kind of taxation was the Stamp Act of 1765. After many years of fighting, England badly needed revenues from their colonies, and they sought to acquire these revenues from the New World, thereby increasing their influence over the colonial governments. These theories of "New Imperialism" were what prompted Prime Minister Grenville to pass the Stamp Act. The Stamp Act of 1765 stated that persons of almost any profession were obliged to buy stamps for their documents. In other words, the act imposed a tax on every printed document in the colonies. For example, a printer had to buy stamps in order to legally be able to distribute his publications. While the act itself was not so detrimental to the economy, it was the ideals behind the act (a direct attempt on the part of the mother country to further itself and raise revenues in the colonies) which drove the revolutionaries' cause. In October of 1765, the same year the act was passed, the Stamp Act Congress met with delegates from nine colonies and petitioned the King of England, along with the two houses of Parliament. This petition and reaction to the act became the first formal cry for reformation with regard to England's control over America. In addition to the Stamp Act of 1765, other various taxations aroused a spirit of revolution in America. One year before the Stamp Act, the Sugar Act of 1764 lowered the duty on molasses and raised the duty on sugar. While this act was designed to raise money, the majority of the Americans did not view it as any different than traditional taxations. Another set of taxes, known as the Townshend Duties, taxed goods imported to the colonies from England. Townshend judged this to be more practical because the duty was on "external" goods (those imported to the country) rather than "internal" goods, which the Stamp Act had attempted to address. However, the already distraught and rebellious American public would not allow it. Soon after the Townshend Duties, the colonial governments were urged by the Massachusetts Assembly to revolt and stand up against every tax, external or internal, imposed by Parliament. Eventually, as a result of all the taxes and regulations, the expression "no taxation without representation" emerged. The Americans were clear and concise on what they wanted: Whether the tax be internal or external, whether it be designed to raise revenue or control trade, it could not exist without the consent of the colonists who were being taxed. The final test of will came when the British government passed the Tea Act of 1773. This act effectively cut out the middleman, or colonial merchant, in the tea trade between Britain and America. This infuriated the colonial merchants, because a powerful monopoly had taken away their ability to trade in the valuable tea. Not only did the economic results of the Tea Act anger the merchants, but also the idea of taxation without representation once again sprang to the forefront of American minds. The complete boycott of tea by Americans ensued. This boycott was extremely important, because it unified the colonies in a mass popular protest. It is also worth noting that American women became actively involved in this protest, since they were the main consumers of tea in America. Riots and protests burst across the county, the biggest and most influential one being the famous "Boston Tea Party". In this riot, an English boat carrying tea shipments was docked in the Boston Harbor. Three bands of fifty men each went aboard the ship, and wildly emptied the tea chests overboard into the harbor. The Boston Massacre exemplifies how British military measures backfired and allowed the Americans to gain a sense of unity in working towards a common goal of independence. What actually happened in the event was a bit unclear to historians. It seems as though there was a scuffle between British soldiers stationed in the town of Boston and

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

The Yellow Wallpaper - Journey Into Insanity Essays - Beecher Family

The Yellow Wallpaper - Journey Into Insanity Essays - Beecher Family The Yellow Wallpaper - Journey into Insanity In "The Yellow Wallpaper", by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, the dominant/submissive relationship between an oppressive husband and his submissive wife pushes her from depression into insanity. Flawed human nature seems to play a great role in her breakdown. Her husband, a noted physician, is unwilling to admit that there might really be something wrong with his wife. This same attitude is seen in her brother, who is also a physician. While this attitude, and the actions taken because of it, certainly contributed to her breakdown; it seems to me that there is a rebellious spirit in her. Perhaps unconsciously she seems determined to prove them wrong. As the story begins, the woman whose name we never learn tells of her depression and how it is dismissed by her husband and brother. "You see, he does not believe I am sick! And what can one do? If a physician of high standing, and one's own husband, assures friends and relatives that there is really nothing the matter with one but temporary nervous depression a slight hysterical * * * * *Roberts 2 tendency what is one to do?" (Gilman 193). These two men both doctors seem completely unable to admit that there might be more to her condition than than just stress and a slight nervous condition. Even when a summer in the country and weeks of bed-rest don't help, her husband refuses to accept that she may have a real problem. Throughout the story there are examples of the dominant - submissive relationship. She is virtually imprisoned in her bedroom, supposedly to allow her to rest and recover her health. She is forbidden to work, "So I . . . am absolutely forbidden to "work" until I am well again." (Gilman 193). She is not even supposed to write: "There comes John, and I must put this away he hates to have me write a word." (Gilman 194). She has no say in the location or decor of the room she is virtually imprisoned in: "I don't like our room a bit. I wanted...But John would not hear of it." (Gilman 193). She can't have visitors: "It is so discouraging not to have any advice and companionship about my work...but he says he would as soon put fireworks in my pillow-case as to let me have those stimulating people about now." (Gilman 196). Probably in large part because of her oppression, she continues to decline. "I don't feel as if it was worthwhile to turn my hand over for anything. . ." (Gilman 197). It seems that her husband is oblivious to her declining conditon, since he never admits she has a real problem until * * * * *Roberts 3 the end of the story at which time he fainted. John could have obtained council from someone less personally involved in her case, but the only help he seeks was for the house and baby. He obtains a nanny to watch over the children while he was away at work each day: "It is fortunate Mary is so good with the baby." (Gilman 195). And he had his sister Jennie take care of the house. "She is a perfect and enthusiastic housekeeper." (Gilman 196). He does talk of taking her to an expert: "John says if I don't pick up faster he shall send me to Weir Mitchell in the fall." But she took that as a threat since he was even more domineering than her husband and brother. Not only does he fail to get her help, but by keeping her virtually a prisoner in a room with nauseating wallpaper and very little to occupy her mind, let alone offer any kind of mental stimulation, he almost forces her to dwell on her problem. Prison is supposed to be depressing, and she is pretty close to being a prisoner. Perhaps if she had been allowed to come and go and do as she pleased her depression might have lifted: "I think sometimes that if I were only well enough to write a little it would relieve the press of ideas and rest me." (Gilman 195). It seems that just being able to tell someone how she really felt would

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Comparison between the retail revolutions in the UK and US Essay

Comparison between the retail revolutions in the UK and US - Essay Example Lao (2008) pointed that the transformation of economic sphere thru retail system generated both social acceptance and disdain because the development of chain stores have also marginalized the small retailers that lacked the capacity to offer first class convenience, a feature preferred by most consumers for comfort while shopping. Its adverse impact leads to the closure of small bookstores, eyewear, footwear and the like as branded goods enter the chain stores (Lao, 2008). This reality is true for United States of America (USA) and United Kingdom (UK). In the last four decades, the countries’ retail revolution boom with the influx of chain â€Å"stores, supermarkets and self-service stores† (Lao, 2008). The UK and the Retail Industry It’s just lately when UK retail trade is dominated by small shops run by the whole family which offers services to the market for long hours and sometimes round the clock. This system also engenders personal relations with customers as owners sometimes allow credit. Others employ salesmen for home delivery services or for mobile selling. Lao (2008) however pointed that retailer and consumer relations in the UK was affected when large chains like Fine Fare, Sainsbury’s, Tesco and other food stores started to operate with express leverage in bargaining power and in offering cheaper prices of pre-packed fresh goods in the markets compared to that of â€Å"old small proprietary stores.† As a consequence, old corner shop closed in favor of thriving convenient well-stocked stores.; employment shifted from proprietary to supermarket chains; and relationships were formalized by using checkout counter and digitized sales and accounting. Stores restructured and employed educated salespersons and managers. And as competition heightened, proprietary retailers and wholesalers organized themselves into association to devise their own promotions, pricing of products, and mechanism to retain customers. With these turn of events, it is likely that dominant chain will rise and proprietary stores die in the absence clear state policies that protect small retailers. This affirmed fears that with retail owners allying themselves to protect their corporate interests, the retail grocery will maintain its oligopolistic character (Burt &